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mold types

Types of Mold

Mold is a specific type of fungi that’s part of the natural environment. They are microscopic organisms that grow almost anywhere with dampness or wet conditions, high temperatures, and a minimal amount of light. They develop into hyphae either indoors and outdoors as long as there are favorable conditions. When fully grown, they produce spores that float freely in the surrounding, thus affecting air quality. This makes mold hazardous to human health depending on a person’s specific allergic reaction and type of mold available.
Mold health hazards

Due to the health dangers of mold in dwelling places, fungi experts have classified them into 3 categories depending on the level of danger they pose.

Hazard Class A

This refers  to the highly hazardous fungi or metabolites to your health. These should be removed from residential dwelling areas completely since they might cause severe and permanent health complications. In the event this mold is spotted in a home or other buildings, immediate attention from experts is needed to carefully remove it.

Hazard Class B

This refers to the type of mold that may cause an allergic reaction to the occupants of the affected home. They are normally found indoors and tend to have been present for long periods of time.

Hazard Class C

The mold that falls in this class are not necessarily hazardous to your health. Nonetheless, if they grow indoors, they will result into increased damage that will hurt you economically.

Types of mold species

In the classification of organisms, scientists use taxonomy to differentiate the types of mold species out there. This science of classification uses relative ranks that fall into Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. A species has 2 parts in its binomial name; generic and specific names.

Aspergillus niger

Hazard class A: To humans, animals, and plants
Commonly Found: On wood and around home corners
Classification: Aspergillus
Species: A. niger
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Trochocomaceae
Class: Eurotiomycetes
Looks like: A thready fungi with a soft texture
Risks: It may cause aspergillosis and otomycosis, a fungal ear infection that may develop into temporary hearing impairment.

Aspergillus niger

Penicillium chrysogenum

Hazard class B:  To humans and animals
Commonly Found: On mattresses and carpets
Classification: Penicillium
Species: P. Chrysogenum
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Trichocomaceae
Class: Eurotiomycetes
Looks like: Yeast numbnuts  
Risks: Contains allergenic proteins


Penicillium chrysogenum

Aspergillus flavus

Hazard class A: To agricultural plants, humans, and animals
Commonly Found: On flower pot soil
Classification: Aspergillus
Species: A. flavus
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Trichocomaceae
Class: Eurotiomycetes
Looks like: A biseriate structure  
Risks: May cause liver cancer if one ingests infected food

Aspergillus flavus

Aspergillus oryzae

Hazard class C: Grown for brewing purposes
Commonly Found: On flower pot soil
Classification: Aspergillus
Species: A. oryzae
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Trichocomaceae
Class: Eurotiomycetes
Looks like: A probiotic filamentous fungi  
Risks: May cause liver cancer if one ingests infected food

Aspergillus oryzae

Alternaria alternata

Hazard class A: Exposure to the fungus is a risk for asthma
Commonly Found: Indoors and on plant leaves
Classification: Alternaria
Species: A. alternata
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Pleosporaceae
Class: Dothideomycetes
Looks like: Plaque-like spots  
Risks: Causes respiratory tract infection and asthma

Black bread mold (Rhizopus stolonifer)

Hazard class B: Bread mold
Commonly Found: Grows on mold
Classification: Rhizopus
Species: R. stolonifer
Division: Mucorales
Family: Mucoraceae
Looks like: A white stem with a sphere-shaped round black top
Risks: Causes digestive problems once ingested

Black bread mold Rhizopus stolonifer

Stachybotry Chartarum (Toxic black mold)

Hazard class A: Linked to a series of animal and human health problems
Commonly Found: Grows in damp, high cellulose areas
Classification: Sordariomycetes
Species: Stachybotry Chartarum
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Stachybotryaceae
Looks like: Slimy, sooty, and graying white strands of fungi
Risks: Causes the sick building syndrome

Stachybotry Chartarum

Mucor mucedo

Hazard class C: Most causative agent of horse, mice, rats, and rabbit diseases.
Commonly Found: Grows in soil, dung, nose effluent, leaf litter in a compost, stored food, and water
Classification: Zygomycetes
Species: M. mucedo
Division: Zygomycota
Family: Mucoraceae
Looks like: Five cottony threads  
Risks: Releases mycotoxins

Cladosporium sphaerospermum

Hazard class C: It is only an allergen that cases respiratory tract diseases, subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis and intrabronchial lesions
Commonly Found: Grows on dead or dying plant tissue
Classification: Dothideomycetes
Species: C. sphaerospermum
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Capnodiales
Looks like: domes of coloured colonies
Risks: Secretes allergenic compounds which are not related to mycotoxins

Cladosporium sphaerospermum

Trichoderma viride

Hazard class C: It mainly affects plants causing Pinusnigra seedlings to dieback and green mold rot of onions. It is also a beneficial fungi used to kill pathogens whilst protecting plants against soil-borne pathogens.
Commonly Found: Grows directly on wood since it is rich in cellulose
Classification: Sordariomycetes
Species: T. viride
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Hypocreaceae
Looks like: Saprophytic strains
Risks: It is used as a biological method of controlling plant pathogenic fungi

Trichoderma viride

Trichophyton verrucosum

Hazard class C: It causes infections in cattle and humans with the former being the most affected.
Commonly Found: Grows on sheep though it is uncommon
Classification: Eurotiomycetes
Species: T. verrucosum
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Arthrodermataceae
Looks like: Antler branches of chlamydoconidia
Risks: When it affects cattle, it significantly reduces the quality of hide, leather, milk, and meat. It is transmitted through needle-stick injuries, lab infections, direct contact with infected person/animal or bites. It causes crust thickness, desquamation, and in some instances hair loss.

Trichophyton verrucosum

Rhizopus oligosporus

Hazard class B: It causes infections in cattle and humans with the former being the most affected.
Commonly Found: It is a saprotroph that acts as a secondary invader and grows on dead/dying plant debris. It is commonly found on city buildings as well as open environment spaces with gypsum based material.
Classification: Zygomycetes
Species: R. oligosporus
Division: Mucorales
Family: Mucoraceae
Risks: It does produce hazardous rhizoxin, rhizonins A and B which are toxic if ingested. However, it is a tempeh incorporated in Indonesian cuisines. It produces beneficial antibiotics so it helps relieve intestinal infections.

Eurotium

Hazard class B: It  To humans
Commonly Found: On clothes, shoes, mattress dust, carpet dust, and floors.
Classification: Eurotiomycetes
Species: Eurotium amstelodami
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Trichocomaceae
Order: Eurotiales
Risks: It may cause inhalation problems that weaken the immune system.

Myxomycetes

Hazard class No data on hazard classification
Commonly Found: On decaying organic matter.
Classification: Myxogastria
Species: Badhamia utricularis
Division: Myxomycetes
Family: Physaraceae
Order: Physarales
Risks: It may cause inhalation problems.

Myxomycetes

Fusarium

Hazard class A: To humans, animals, and plants.
Commonly Found: On basement, cellars, moist wallpaper, and plant debris as a saprophyte.
Classification: Sordariomycetes
Species: Fusarium acaciae
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Nectriaceae
Order: Hypocreales
Risks: It is an opportunistic fungi that causes various diseases to plants, animals, and humans.

Fusarium

Penicillium

Hazard class B: To humans.
Commonly Found: On soil like in the forest, desert, beach soil, and marine habitats.
Classification: Eurotiomycetes
Species: Penicillium expansum
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Trichocomaceae
Order: Eurotiales
Risks: It is a beneficial fungus used to make antibiotics but also produces mycotoxins.

Poria Incrassata

Hazard class B: To wood
Commonly Found: Between soil and on soil.
Classification: Agaricomycetes
Species: Poria Incrassata
Division: Basidiomycota
Family: Polyporaceae
Order: Polyporales
Risks: It eats up cellulose in wood causing it to rot.

Poria Incrassata

Absidia

Hazard class B: To humans, animals, and plants as an allergenic.
Commonly Found: On decaying organic matter, soil, and indoor environments like carpet dust.
Classification: Zygomycetes
Species: Absidiaaegyptiaca
Division: Zygomycota
Family: Cunninghamellaceae
Order: Mucorales
Risks: It may cause inhalation problems and dermal inoculation conditions that lower your immunity.

Absidia

Acremonium

Hazard class B: To humans since it produces carcinogenic mycotoxins.
Commonly Found: On the soil and plant debris.
Classification: Hyphomycetes
Species: Acremonium alternatum
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Hypocreaceae
Order: Hypocreales
Risks: Prolonged exposure to this mold may cause skin infections like mycetoma among other health risks.

Acremonium

Alternaria

Hazard class A: To humans and animals
Commonly Found: On indoor and outdoor cellulose surfaces.
Classification: Dothideomycetes
Species: Alternaria alternata
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Pleosporaceae
Order: Pleosporale
Risks: Causes potato blight, leaf spots, and upper respiratory infection in people with a hypersensitive immune system.

Alternaria

Ascospores

Hazard class B: To humans, plants, and animals
Commonly Found: Indoors on damp surfaces.
Classification: Ascomycota
Species: Microascus cinerea
Division: Ascomycetes
Family: Microascaceae
Order: Microascales
Risks: Few studies have been done on its health risks.

Ascospores

Aspergillus carbonarius

Hazard class C: To humans
Commonly Found: Plant debris like dried fruits and litter.
Classification: Aspergillus
Species: Aspergillus carbonarius
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Trichocomaceae
Order: Eurotiomycetes
Risks: It produces ochratoxin A, which is a toxic carcinogenic.

Aspergillus carbonarius

Aspergillus clavatus

Hazard class A: To humans and animals
Commonly Found: It is a spoilage organism that grows on damp soil, dung, and other surfaces with alkaline conditions.
Classification: Aspergillus
Species: Aspergillus clavatus
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Trichocomaceae
Order: Eurotiomycetes
Risks: It a pathogenic that produces toxic mycotoxins that may result to pulmonary diseases and hypersensitive pneumonitis.

Aspergillus clavatus

Aspergillus fumigatus

Hazard class A: To humans and animals
Commonly Found: It grows on decomposing organic matter.
Classification: Aspergillus
Species: Aspergillus fumigatus
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Trichocomaceae
Order: Eurotiales
Risks: It is associated with a long-term Aspergillus infection known as chronic pulmonary
aspergillosis.

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillus ochraceus

Hazard class A: To humans and animals
Commonly Found: It grows on dry food products, grains, and soil.
Classification: Aspergillus
Species: Aspergillus ochraceus
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Trichocomaceae
Order: Eurotiales
Risks: It produces ochratoxin, which is a food contaminating toxin.

Aspergillus ochraceus

Aspergillus sydowii

Hazard class A: To humans and animals
Commonly Found: It grows in the soil and damp walls.
Classification: Aspergillus
Species: Aspergillus sydowii
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Trichocomaceae
Order: Eurotiales
Risks: It associated with onychomycosis, keratomycosis, and respiratory system infections.

Aspergillus sydowii

Aspergillus versicolor

Hazard class A: To humans and animals
Commonly Found: It is found on damp indoor spaces and grows on food products.
Classification: Aspergillus
Species: Aspergillus versicolor
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Trichocomaceae
Order: Eurotiales
Risks: It causes Aspergilloses of the lungs in humans and animals.

Aspergillus versicolor

Aureobasidium

Hazard class B: To humans
Commonly Found: It grows on soil, air, water, and limestone.
Classification: Aureobasidium
Species: Aureobasidium pullulans
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Dothioraceae
Order: Dothideales
Risks: It may cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Aureobasidium

Basidiospores

Hazard class B: To humans
Commonly Found: On compost piles and hay bales, especially during the rainy season.
Classification: Basidiospores
Species: Basidiosporebasidium
Division: Basidiomycota
Family: Agaricaceae
Order: Agaricales
Risks: It may cause respiratory illnesses, meningitis, and infections of the eyes, skin and nails.

Basidiospores

Bipolaris

Hazard class B: To humans and animals
Commonly Found: On plant debris, soil, and various plant materials.
Classification: Dothideomycetes
Species: Bipolarismaydis
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Pleosporaceae
Order: Pleosporales
Risks: It might cause various plant diseases like fruit rot and blights.

Bipolaris

Chaetomium

Hazard class C: To humans and animals
Commonly Found: On soil, air, cellulose and plant debris.
Classification: Sordariomycetes
Species: Chaetomium globosum
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Chaetomiaceae
Order: Sordariales
Risks: It may cause type 1 allergic reactions and infections

Chaetomium

Cladosporium

Hazard class B: To humans 
Commonly Found: On living and dead plant material.
Classification: Dothideomycetes
Species: Cladosporium herbarum
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Davidiellaceae
Order: Capnodiales
Risks: It may cause respiratory, skin, and toenail infections.

Cryptococcus

Hazard class B: To humans 
Commonly Found: On soil and bird droppings.
Classification: Tremellomycetes
Species: Cryptococcus neoformans
Division: Basidiomycota
Family: Tremellaceae
Order: Tremellales
Risks: It may cause cryptococcal infection and disease.

Cryptococcus

Curvularia

Hazard class B: To humans and animals 
Commonly Found: On plant species and soil.
Classification: Dothideomycetes
Species: Curvularia lunata
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Pleosporaceae
Order: Pleosporales
Risks: It is a virus-infected fungus.

Curvularia

Epicoccum

Hazard class B: To humans 
Commonly Found: On plant species and soil.
Classification: Saprophytic fungus that grows on dead/dying plants, compost, sewage etc.
Classification: Dothidiomycetes
Species: Epicoccum nigrum
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Didymellaceae
Order: Pleosporales
Risks: It may cause inhalation health problems that may weaken your immune system.

Epicoccum

Ganoderma

Hazard class B: To humans
Commonly Found: On base and stumps of deciduous trees.
Classification: Dothideomycetes
Species: Ganoderma lucidum
Division: Basidiomycota
Family: Ganodermataceae
Order: Polyporales
Risks: It may cause a bleeding disorder.

Ganoderma

Geotrichum

Hazard class B: To humans and animals 
Commonly Found: On plant, soil, water, and air
Classification: Saccharomycetes
Species: Geotrichum candidum
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Dipodascaceae
Order: Saccharomycetales
Risks: It may cause invasive cutaneous infection.

Geotrichum

Mucor

Hazard class B: To humans and animals
Commonly Found: Onsoil, digestive systems, plant surfaces, and rotten vegetation.
Classification: Mucormycotina
Species: Mucor mucedo
Division: Zygomycota
Family: Mucoraceae
Order: Mucorales
Risks: It may cause uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.

Penicillium chrysogenum

Hazard class B: To humans and animals 
Commonly Found: On vegetation, stored food, soil, and damp building materials.
Classification: Eurotiomycetes
Species: Penicillium chrysogenum
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Trichocomaceae
Order: Eurotiales
Risks: It produces toxins that may cause respiratory irritant.

Penicillium chrysogenum

Phoma

Hazard class B: To humans and animals 
Commonly Found: On plant debris and soil.
Classification: Dothideomycetes
Species: Phoma herbarum
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Didymellaceae
Order: Pleosporales
Risks: It may cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asthma, and infectious diseases.

Phoma

Serpula lacrymans

Hazard class B: To humans and animals 
Commonly Found:  On plant cellulose.
Classification: Agaricomycetes
Species: Serpula lacrymans
Division: Basidiomycota
Family: Serpulaceae
Order: Boletales
Risks: It may cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asthma, and infectious diseases.

Smuts

Hazard class B: To humans 
Commonly Found: On soil and crop debris like corn.
Classification: Ustilaginomycetes
Species: Ustilago maydis
Division: Basidiomycota
Family: Ustilaginaceae
Order: Ustilaginales
Risks: It may cause boil and blister smut.

Smuts on corn

Stachybotrys

Hazard class C: To humans and animals
Commonly Found: On soil and plant debris.
Classification: Sordariomycetes
Species: Stachybotryschartarum
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Stachybotryaceae
Order: Hypocreales
Risks: It may cause animal and human mycotoxicos.

Stachybotrys

Ulocladium

Hazard class C: To humans
Commonly Found: On soil and decaying herbaceous plants.
Classification: Dothideomycetes
Species: Ulocladium botrytis
Division: Ascomycota
Family: Pleosporaceae
Order: Pleosporales
Risks: It is a human pathogen.

Smuts

Hazard class B: To humans 
Commonly Found: On soil and crop debris like corn.
Classification: Ustilaginomycetes
Species: Ustilago maydis
Division: Basidiomycota
Family: Ustilaginaceae
Order: Ustilaginales
Risks: It may cause boil and blister smut.

Smuts on corn

Symptoms of mold exposure

Mold exposure is greatly linked to sicknesses and the risk it poses to your health is real. As such, if you notice any mold exposure symptoms in your residential building, having it removes by experts will protect against this threat. These exposure symptoms can be classified into the most common, advanced, and late stage. The common short term mold exposure symptoms include; sneezing, skin itchiness, redness & irritation, headaches, watery & itchy eyes.
If you’re on-and-off a mold exposed environment for a prolonged period of time, then you’ll likely experience nose bleeds, appetite loss, weight loss, skin rash, vomiting & nausea, breathing difficulties, feeling fatigued, diarrhea, open skin sores, neurological disorders, sexual dysfunctions, hair loss, and chronic bronchitis. You may also notice some coughing up blood or black debris. Your glands around the neck may also become sore, chronic sinus infections, asthma attacks, painful joints and muscles, short-term memory loss etc.

In severe mold exposure cases, you may experience blindness, brain damage, long-term memory loss, bleeding in the lungs, and cancer.

Symptoms of black mold exposure include:

• Persistent headaches
• Anxiety and coughing
• Stuffy and runny nose
• Red and itchy eyes
• Itchy and sore throat
• Sinuses and other allergic reactions
• Lung and genital organ infections

How much mold exposure is harmful

This might be one of the most genuine mold questions that I come across. Small bits of mold in your home will not cause a health hazard. Nonetheless, in favourable conditions, it will grow, multiply, and build up into harmful levels. The more the moisture in your home, the more the mold will grow and the more it is unsafe for you to live in it.

Furthermore, varying mold species cause different allergic reactions and pose varying levels of health hazard. As such, there isn’t any right or wrong level of mold to have in your home. Whenever you notice some water damage, it’s good to have your property restored before it can cause permanent damage. Although the symptoms you experience at first may be mild and temporary, living with mold exposes you to more permanent and deadly symptoms.

 

Types of black mold

Stachybotrys Chartarum

This is the most common type of black mold and it is found in places prone to water damage regularly. 
Mold experts often look for this type of black mold on the wallpaper, ceiling, curtains, basement tiles, furniture, carpet, sheetrocks, and other areas in the kitchen and bathroom exposed to moisture. It is highly hazardous because it emits mycotoxins that are poisonous. 
Besides having headaches, respiratory issues, and watery eyes, you may also experience digestive problems.

Fusarium spp

This is identified as a plant pathogen that affects the banana plant through Panama disease. It is usually found on the inside surfaces of swimming pools. They affect human beings as opportunistic fungi leading to hyalohyphomycosis. It is a common condition among burn patients and those who have undergone bone marrow transplant.

Cladosporium spp

This is one of the most common molds found both indoors and outdoors on plant debris, dead plant remains, and senescents.

The main symptoms you’ll experience if you come across this black mold are asthma and allergies. Few people, however, have reported infections including sinusitis, pulmonary infections, skin lesions, onychomycosis, and keratitis.

Penicillium spp

You’ll find this mold in the air, soil, decayed plants etc. It is the most common indoor black mold that you are likely to notice growing on the carpet, ceiling tiles, walls, floors, mattress, furniture, and other damp places.
Unlike the other types of mold that are dangerous to your health, Penicillium is often used as an agricultural inoculants and is lab beneficial. It is the kind used to preserve fruit juices, improve the taste of yoghurts and produce cheese.
Nonetheless, it is harmful to your health if used under uncontrolled environments. It also grows in large masses.

Types and colors of mold

  • Black mold
  • Brown mold
  • Orange mold
  • Red Mold
  • Red Mold
  • Green mold
  • Yellow mold
  • White mold

Natural remedies for mold

There are numerous natural remedies for removing mold in your homes if you want to DIY. For instance, you can wash the affected area with tea tree oil, vinegar, or hydrogen peroxide mixture until it is spotless.
Air purifiers are also suitable to get rid of mold spores as well as remove mildew to maintain excellent air quality. It comes with ultra violet light that is highly effective at killing mold spores.
It further features a HEPA filter, an ionizer, and a carbon filter to capture all the mold particles and mildew from the air to eliminate all toxic allergens.
There are numerous natural remedies for removing mold from your homes if you want to DIY. You can wash the affected area with tea tree oil, vinegar, or hydrogen peroxide mixture until it is spotless.

Combating mold with Air purifiers

Air purifiers are on the other hand to get rid of mold spores as well as remove mildew to maintain excellent air quality. It comes with ultra violet light that is highly effective at killing mold spores. It further features a HEPA filter, an ionizer, and carbon filter to capture all the mold particles and mildew in the air to eliminate all toxic allergens.


Mold vs Mildew

Mold is a type of fungi growing as a single or multiple cells into string-like hyphae. It forms in different ways depending on the type and where it’s growing.
You can readily spot mold in damp spaces such as between wallpapers, basement, ceiling tiles, bathroom, and kitchen.
Beneficial mold like penicillin is used as a life-saving antibiotic in formulating medicine. Mold reproduces by spores that affects indoor and outdoor air quality.
Mildew is described as a type of mold that grows on moist surfaces and tends to spread fast. It grows into a flat multi-cellular fungus that is commonly found on the remains of living things such as leather, wood or paper.

The difference in appearance between mold and mildew?

To compile a mold vs mildew analysis, it is imperative to review them in terms of appearance and exposure symptoms. Mold looks like a black, blue, gray, brown, yellow or green fuzzy mass that causes structural damage to property.
Mold is hazardous to your health because it leads to symptoms that ranges from respiratory issues to fatigue, headaches, allergies, joint pain, skin/joint inflammation, and mental problems.
Some type of mold is beneficial like penicillin, which is used to produce foods like cheese and formulate medication like antibiotics.

Mildew looks like a flat pattern that looks downy or powdery with the color varying for each case. Downy mildew appears yellow and turns to brown with time.
Powdery mildew, on the other hand, is white at first and later turns yellowish, brownish or blackish. Mildew affects plants like vegetables growing in damp conditions. It may cause health issues such as migraines and respiratory problems.

Where does mold and mildew grow?

Mold tends to grow in places that are moist and warm. This implies that you will likely spot it indoors although you can also find it outdoors.
If you’re experiencing leaks or other form of water damage in your home, then you might find mold on the roof, ceiling, walls, pipes, and windows. It will grow on paper, cardboard, and wood products soon as they come in contact with water.

Like mold, mildew tends to grow in warm, damp places. It mostly seeks food, which means that you’ll find mildew growing on plants where it causes a fungal infection like downy and powdery mildew. It also likes windy conditions and grows on porous organic products.

Health hazards of mold and mildew

Mold and mildew cause a variety of health hazards that may later develop into infections that require deeper medical attention. Respiratory problems, digestive issues, and neurologic problems are some of the health symptoms of mold and mildew presence in your home.
Depending on the type of mold growing around you, you might experience certain allergic reactions as a result of the toxic spores that may even affect your breathing.
If you are hypersensitive to fungi like mold, you may have a running nose, keep sneezing and wheezing, have itchy and red eyes, itchy and inflammatory skin that develops into a rash, nasal stuffiness, throat irritation and soreness etc.
To avoid the severe symptoms of mold exposure, be sure to contact professionals to help you get rid of all the mold and mildew in and around your home.

How to remove mildew from:

  • Clothes- If you leave your clothes in a damp, warm, and dark space for days, you may notice some whitish-grey, greenish spots alongside a musty smell. To get rid of this mildew from the fabric, you can use white vinegar to soak the clothes or go for bleach or borax. Test a small amount of the solution you’re using on a small point before soaking the entire garment to avoid causing permanent damage.
  • Leather- You might want to consider scrubbing off the mildew from your leather surface with a brush before washing it with a detergent solution and allowing it to dry. You can wipe down the surface with some alcohol to disinfect it for safe use in future.
  • Wood- After scrubbing off the mold on wood surfaces with a brush, mix bleach and water to spray-clean the affected areas thoroughly. Once dry, use soap and a sponge to get rid of the remaining mildew spots before turning on the air conditioner.
  • Walls- If you have mildew on your walls, spray a solution of chlorine bleach mixed with detergent and some warm water to remove the spots. When finishing off, use an anti-mildew paint to avoid any more mold growth in the future.

How to get rid of mildew smell?


Removing mold and mildew from your property and drying the affected area will still not get rid of the smell. Below are a series of simple ways, however, that you can use to remove that musty smell and bad odor from your home. They will help you keep the air quality in your house excellent.
– Get good air purifiers that will instantly clean the air and eliminate the mildew problems effectively and efficiently.
– Keep the dehumidifier off as you work to remove any moisture that could be causing more dampness in the room.
– Use odor eaters such as placing a dry cloth over the air vent to allow cleaner air to be blown around. Small cheese-cloths have proven to be helpful in removing mildew smell that detergents have not been able to.
– In some cases, the best solution is to eliminate the item where mildew has grown on to get rid of the smell for good. If the wood surface is rotten, you can remove all of it to keep your home clean and the air ideal for healthy living.

Non-toxic ways to clean mold and mildew?


Dealing with mold and mildew is both annoying and a health hazard. However, you don’t necessarily need aggressive products to clean these fungi off. There are a number of non-toxic ways to do that without ruining your floors, walls, ceiling, or other parts of your house.
For instance, you could use vinegar, hydrogen peroxide, and baking soda mixed in specific portions to kill the mold and mildew.
You can then spray the already clean area with the solution as a way of disinfecting it.
Vodka is also another nontoxic product that you could use to disinfect the mold and mildew infested areas in your home whilst getting rid of the smell. Using essential oils and rubbing it on the mold and mildew infected areas is also one of the most effective ways of removing the musky smell and bad odor naturally.

 

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